The Springfields Academy

Reach South Academy Trust

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Pastoral intervention

Behaviour Management

Behaviours are functional and communicative acts, which are meaningful because they achieve important results for an individual.

As behaviours serve a communicative function, it is therefore most effective to teach an alternative, appropriate response than to try and stop a behaviour by using aversive techniques or sanctions. Positive behaviour management procedures are constructive, in that they teach an appropriate, alternative means to achieve the same goal and ultimately build self-esteem.

We aim to understand the underlying factors causing the behaviour in order to respond positively, consistently and effectively. We will provide structures and strategies to empower the individual to manage their own behaviour, promote emotional regulation and independence, enhance communication and socialisation and raise self-esteem.

Understanding behaviour related to a diagnosis of autism

99% of behaviour linked to autism is logical. It makes sense. Children with autism often experience high levels of anxiety, which if not managed appropriately can result in behaviour that can be challenging. This challenging behaviour is often an emotional response which will be related to anger, fear, stress/anxiety, frustration, lack of control/no perceived alternative, sensory, lack of global stability, sadness, disappointment or enjoyment/happiness. As a result, the school works with the children, their parents/carers and external agencies to gain a deep understanding of the purpose or function of their behaviour and reduce anxiety.

Autism theory

We understand that children display a range of behaviours that are linked to their diagnosis of autism. We therefore, work with all stakeholders to develop our knowledge and understanding of the needs of the child. We acknowledge that in recent times, the theory of mind, executive (dys) function and central coherence theories of autism have assumed a dominant position in the domain of autism research and understand that many behaviours presented by the children are explained within this theoretical research. Examples include:

Cognitive difficulties which may arise

Interpretation problems which may result

 

Difficulty putting yourself in someone’s shoes – seeing things from their point of view (Theory of Mind)

Why did he hit me when I told him he was silly?

I didn’t know she would cry.

I don’t see why he can’t play with me

Difficulty adjusting behaviour according to the demands of the immediate setting (Executive Function, Central Coherence)

 

Why is it wrong to call my teacher mate?

Why should I sit quietly?

Difficulty controlling impulses (Executive function)

 

I didn’t mean to call out in class.

I didn’t stop to think

Difficulty understanding and predicting others’ behaviour (Theory of Mind)

 

I thought he was going to be my friend

I thought she was going to hit me

Difficulty taking account of context to aid understanding (Central coherence)

When she said find a ‘pair’ I couldn’t see any fruit.

 

Difficulty carrying out tasks/behaviours in a staged, organised way i.e. seeing a task through from beginning to end (Executive function)

 

How do I get changed for PE

How do I get to school on the bus

How do I plan this Science experiment

The Framework

  1. Establish and maintain good foundations

This level (Green level) represents where we want to be and where we want to stay. This is where the foundations of good autism practice are monitored and observed. These foundations include an autistic friendly environment, good communications systems personalised approach to teaching and learning, autistic specific strategies and interventions (e.g. TEACCH) and a clear understanding of the child. If these foundations are in place, behaviours will be kept to minimum (preventative) and staff will have the tool kit to address identified low level behaviours.

  1. Prevent and Divert

Before finding a solution to the problem (of the unwanted behaviours), it is essential to have a clear picture of what is happening. When dealing with difficult and sometime challenging behaviour, it is often hard to tease out the steps that lead up to the behaviour occurring. When analysing behaviour, we look for the ‘trigger’ or the particular act or event which occurs immediately before the behaviour. Sometimes this is easy to see, for example, hitting may be immediately preceded by a request to shut down a computer. At other times, when the trigger is not obvious, it is important to consider what the function of the behaviour is. E.g. the trip to the local supermarket may lead to an outburst of anger. But what is the trigger in the supermarket?

Problem Solving

Working out the function of the behaviour relies greatly on the detail and quality of the information related to ‘knowing and understanding the child’. Staff use their existing paperwork (pupil profile and one page profile) as part of any functional assessment of behaviour. Due to this level of understanding key staff/tutors are able to use the problem solving flow chart (below) to ascertain the possible function of the pupil’s behaviour.

From this staff and the pastoral team are able to construct a hypothesis which describes the purpose of the behaviour. For example,

Behaviour = an expression of anger because child x is avoiding physical contact from others (dislikes children touching him/getting too close).

The identified behaviour can then be unpicked an intervention plan formulated:

Act

The term intervention framework is used to reflect the need to do more than simply construct a behaviour programme. Depending on the type of behaviour and the reason it occurs, intervention planning often involves a complex mix of elements and more than simply immediate actions.

Questions that are asked to inform the appropriate actions include:

  • What foundations may to change?
  • What new skills need to be taught?
  • What reward system or reinforcing activities can be used?
  • What functionally equivalent behaviours or diversionary activities could be used?
  • What instant actions or strategies might be needed?

From this, a tiered approach is created to support either the individual child or on rare occasions groups of children. In its simplest form, the school creates a tiered intervention approach to support the needs of all children.

Tiers

The Springfields Academy – Anxiety Management

Behaviours are functional and communicative acts, which are meaningful because they achieve important results for an individual.

As behaviours serve a communicative function, it is, therefore, most effective to teach an alternative, appropriate response than to try and stop a behaviour by using aversive techniques or sanctions. Positive behaviour management procedures are constructive, in that they teach an appropriate, alternative means to achieve the same goal and ultimately build self-esteem.

We aim to understand the underlying factors causing the behaviour in order to respond positively, consistently and effectively. We will provide structures and strategies to empower the individual to manage their own behaviour, promote emotional regulation and independence, enhance communication and socialisation and raise self-esteem.

Autism and Behaviour

99% of behaviour linked to autism is logical.

It makes sense. Children with autism often experience high levels of anxiety, which if not managed appropriately can result in behaviour that can be challenging. This challenging behaviour is often an emotional response which will be related to anger, fear, stress/anxiety, and frustration, lack of control/no perceived alternative, sensory, lack of global stability, sadness, disappointment or enjoyment/happiness. As a result, it is vital that the school works with the children, their parents/carers and external agencies to gain a deep understanding of the purpose or function of their behaviour and reduce anxiety.

Autism theory

We understand that children display a range of behaviours that are linked to their diagnosis of autism.

We, therefore, work with all stakeholders to develop our knowledge and understanding of the needs of the child. We acknowledge that in recent times, the theory of mind, executive (dys) function and central coherence theories of autism have assumed a dominant position in the domain of autism research and understand that many behaviours presented by the children are explained within this theoretical research.

Autism theory

Presenting behaviours (examples)

Theory of Mind

  • Alexithymia
  • Lack of empathy
  • Impaired ability to trust
  • Appearance of rudeness

Executive (dys) function

  • Scripting
  • Impulse control
  • Sequencing
  • Inhibition
  • Mental flexibility

Central coherence

  • Will not understand the underlying rules
  • Fixate on detail or pay close attention to detail
  • Cannot filter what is relevant or redundant
  • Cannot recognise the big picture or impact on others

Intent:

To build safe independent lives for autistic young people though support, understanding and enablement.

We understand that challenging behaviour has a communicative intent.

We recognise that the ultimate function of all behaviour is to get needs met, and work with the child to replace or divert this behaviour in a positive manner.

Furthermore our intent is to:

  • Develop an understanding of how autism presents in the individual child and the underlying factors causing anxiety/behaviours, in order to respond positively, consistently and effectively.
  • Embed a culture of reflective practice. What are you doing and why are you doing it? What is the function of the behaviour and can we divert or replace it?
  • By providing structures and strategies to empower the individual to manage their own behaviour, promote emotional regulation and independence, enhance communication and socialisation and raise self-esteem.
  • By treating all pupils with respect and fairness even when they are challenging
  • Providing a caring, safe and supportive learning environment.
  • Ensure the use of Physical intervention is minimised and continually reduced
  • Celebrating the progress of all pupils.
  • Teaching the individual child about their diagnosis of autism and how this presents.

Implementation:

We ensure the schools guiding principles for the promotion of positive behaviour are applied consistently across the provision.

These are:

  • Good listening
  • Be kind
  • Try my best

In addition we aim to understand and support the child’s behaviour through:

  • The analysis of ABC charts
  • The Functional Analysis of their Behaviour
  • Care Plans that identify settings and triggers, as well as proactive, preventative and reactive strategies (residential)
  • One page profiles
  • Pupil profiles
  • Monitoring and evaluating data – academic/therapeutic
  • 5 Point Scale (chart emotional regulation)
  • TEACCH approach (for identified pupils) - this aims to increase independence and reduce anxiety through physical structure of the environment, personalised visual schedules, independent work-systems and visual support systems
  • Consistent environment approach including calm corners
  • Sensory supports
  • Positive mentoring
  • Visual Support systems

Impact:

The schools approach to anxiety management is evaluated through the termly analysis which is informed by:

  • Autism progress framework – Springfields
  • Progress Frameworks - autism, knowledge and skills bespoke to cohort pathway (KPI’s)
  • Progress towards EHCP outcomes 
  • Pupil progress and attainment cycle 
  • Pupil voice
  • Behaviour watch – analysis of antecedents, behaviours and consequences
  • Exclusions
  • Attendance
  • Anxiety related behaviours e.g. missing from education, physical intervention etc.

Anxiety Management Development Plan

Intent

Implementation

Impact

Training /Costings

To implement a new daily anxiety management/incident recording/reporting system.

Review and update the current ABC recording systems to reflect a targeted focus on 5/6 key areas and move towards reflective practice.

Ensure the new recording system is operational on behaviour watch by Sept 19.

Develop a reflective staff help sheet/handbook to support with a change in practice.

Develop a culture where the emphasis is to unpick the function of a child’s behaviour and then target the appropriate interventions and/or resources to support need.

 

To build a monitoring system that informs intervention and highlights individual progress.

Develop a termly monitoring system that tracks:

Antecedents

Reparative and restorative practice

Individual pupil interventions

Write case studies to highlight the positive impact of the intervention team in reducing unwanted behaviours.

Monitoring will drive change and therefore inform practice and pedagogy.

Staff will have increase accountability in managing pupils anxieties and their behaviours

 

To develop a range of tiered interventions that are targeted to meet pupil need. (driven from monitoring)

Develop and run a range of tiered interventions that target 5/6 presenting behaviours e.g. deliberate damage.

Evaluate and highlight the impact of intervention through monitoring and reporting.

Pupils will receive targeted interventions that meet presenting needs. This will reduce negative anxiety related behaviour.

 

To implement a training model for staff that is informed by school and pupil data. (Based on real-time need)

Ensure training program is related to interventions and associated behaviours.

Review whole school team teach approach and make necessary reasonable adjustment.

Revisit – functional analysis of behaviour training (all staff).

Training will target need of the pupils and will be informed by data.

 

To review accountability structures regarding anxiety management strategies.

Ensure pastoral team attend pupil progress meetings x3 a year.

Run (keeping notes) surgeries for all staff – reflective practice

Review and clarify roles of staff who work within the existing pastoral team.

Monitoring will drive change and therefore inform practice and pedagogy.

Staff will have increase accountability in managing pupils anxieties and their behaviours